People behind LOOM

People behind LOOM

Feedback on Draft preliminary constitution of Nepal 2072 | महिला मैत्री संबिधानका लागि हाम्रा सुझावहरु

Feedback and Recommendation
Draft preliminary constitution of Nepal 2072
From Women’s Perspective


Citizens who have contributed in people’s war, people’s movement, madhesh movement, including other movement, social justice and equality should be acknowledged. After 8 years of debating on constitution, citizens are happy to get an opportunity and be a part of such a historical event of giving suggestion in a hope of stability and peace.

The current draft of constitution has many positive aspects for the nepali citizens. However, some points on the basic needs of women’s right, equality and human rights needs to be included and changed. We, a group of 9 organizations has come up with some suggestions for the draft constitution.

After high involvement on the process and various discussions of the nepali citizens on the constitution draft, the issue of citizenship and women’s right is not yet ensured and the diversity of people is also not well addressed. This has really disappointed us and would like to shed light to this issue to all the related authorities and officials.

More than half of the population of Nepal, 51.4% are women. In society like ours, women are discriminated hence, they are marginalized, harassed and faced by many other problems. Constitution is one of the medium for women to get out of such situations and they would not accept the suppression of their rights. After a long struggle, compromise and sacrifice of nepali women, the democratic body that came in form was unable to address the questions/queries of women in the draft. Thus, the peace in the nation cannot be prevailed with such situation. In order to bring progressive development in the country, women rights should be mainstreamed.

Here are some of the recommendations we have for the suggestion collecting committee.


1.    Keeping in mind of the self-respect of the citizen, the word “victim” should be replaced by either “effect” or any other relevant word.

2.    Citizenship,
3.     Any person who have their permanent domicile in Nepal shall be offered Nepali citizenship by descent if his/her father or mother is a citizen of Nepal.
4.    For the provision of matrimonial naturalized citizenship, the provision for male and female should be equally guaranteed. In the meantime, identity card of economic and social right should be provided until the matrimonial naturalized citizenship is issued.
5.    A person born in Nepal to a Nepali citizen married to a foreign citizen, and has permanent domicile in the country and has voluntarily declared about not acquiring foreign citizenship, shall acquire citizenship by descent of Nepal as provided for by law.
6.    A person born to a Nepali citizen mother and who has domicile in Nepal but whose father is not known, shall be granted Nepali citizenship by descent. The sentence should remove the “unknown father” provision since it will hurt the dignity of women.

7.    Fundamental rights and duties

8.    Right to Women:

9.    Each women shall have the right to safe motherhood, reproductive health and sexual health.
10.    Foeticide on the basis of identity of gender shall be punishable by law should be replaced by abortion on the basis of identity of gender shall be punishable.

11.    Right to equality

12.    All citizens shall be equal before the constitution not by law. No person shall be denied the equal protection and benefit of the laws should also include access and result should also be ensured.
13.    Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the poor, women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi (indigenous groups), ethnic groups, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharus, peasants, laborers, excluded groups, Muslims, backward classes, minority groups, marginalized groups, communities on the verge of extinction, youth, children, the elderly, gender and sexual minorities, people with physical impairment, physically incapacitated and the helpless, and the citizens of backward regions. The law  should ensure equal opportunity, accessible and should be result oriented.


15.    The house-hold work done by women should be recognized and accounted in the national income.
16.    Men and women should be equally involved in the household works.

17.    Federal legislature

18.    Women’s involvement

19.    Involvement of 33% of women should be ensured in the National assembly and house of representative.

20.    Provincial legislature
21.    40% of women’s participation should be included in provincial parliament.

22.    Local legislature

23.      50% of women’s participation should be ensured in village assembly and municipal assembly. Every assembly should consist at least one women as a Head or Deputy Head.

24.    Executive relations between the Federation, Provinces and local tier

25.    Federal, provinces and local government must ensure 33% of women’s participation. Atleast one women should be elected as a head or deputy head.

26.    Constitutional Commission

27.    All the constitutional commission and national security commission should incorporate the participation of women.
28.    The age bar of minimum 40 years should be removed for the membership of Women’s commission, Human Rights commission along with constitutional commission.

29.    Judiciary

30.    All levels of court and judicial council should have a provision of 33% of women’s participation.

31.    Participation of women in decision making level

32.    Either President or vice-president along with prime minister or deputy prime minister must be a woman. Male and female should be kept alternate in major post.

33.    Create, register and run a political party

34.    Proportional inclusion need to be ensured in political parties, the election commission should dismiss the registration of the political party if 33% of women is not participated.


•    In order to make constitution gender friendly, the language should be kept into consideration.
•    The constitution draft should be finalized, and in every decision making process the constitution assembly should incorporate the participation of women.
•    When talking about women, the differences among women itself should be kept into consideration during participation.
•    Atleast one women should be elected as a head or deputy head of any body. The male and female should be kept alternate in these posts.

Organizations involved:

1.    Loom Nepal
2.    AYON
3.    WOREC Nepal
4.    Forum for Women Law and Development (FWLD)
5.    Women for women forum
6.    Sancharika Samuha
7.    Chori
8.    Hamri Bahini
9.    Third Alliance for Human Right
10.    Women Human Rights Defenders Network- District Alliance, Kathmandu

 महिला मैत्री संबिधानका लागि  हाम्रा सुझावहरु

नेपाली जनताहरुको त्याग र बलिदानको जगमा रहेर बन्ने संविधानलाई सबै बर्ग, लिङ्ग, जात, क्षेत्र र  समूदायका मानिसहरुको सम्मान, पहिचान, आत्मसम्मानको सुचिश्चत गरेको अनुभूती हुने गरी राम्रो र हाम्रो बनाउनको लागि संवेदनशील हुनु जरुरी छ । वर्तमान छलफलका लागि ल्याइएको डाप्ःट संविधानको मस्यौदामा धैरै सकारात्मक पक्षहरु हुदाहुदै पनि महिला, श्रीमक र पछाडि पारिएका समूदायका सवालहरु छायामा परेको अनुभूति हामीले गरेको छौ । महिलाको पहिचान मानवअधिकारका आधारभूत केही विषयलाई समावेश गर्न  र परिमार्जन गर्न आवश्यक  रहेकोले महिला अधिकारका क्षेत्रमा क्रियाशील ९ वटा संस्थाले निम्नानुसार सामूहिक सुझाव  पेश गरेका छौ ।

आधा भन्दा धैरै जनसंख्या, ५१.४ प्रतिशत नेपाली महिलाहरु सदियौको उत्पिडन, दमन, शोषण र अन्यायको दलदलबाट मुक्ति पाउने यो सुवर्ण अवसरमाथि यो वा त्यो नाममा महिलाका अधिकारको कुण्ठित हुने अवस्थालाई महिलाहरुले  कदापि स्वीकार गर्ने छैनन् । नेपाली जनताहरुको (महिलाहरु) लामो संघर्ष, त्याग, बलिदानबाट र सर्मपणबाट श्रृजित लोकतान्त्रिक संविधानसभाले महिलाहरुको सवाललाई पूर्ण रुपमा संवोधन गर्ने गरी संबिधान जारी गर्न नसके देशमा शान्ति स्थापना नहुने कुरा निश्चित छ । देशको अग्रगमन विकासको लागि महिलाको अधिकार सहितको मुलप्रवाहिकारण अनिवार्य छ ।

निम्न उल्लेखित सुझावहरुमा संविधानसभा सुझाव संकलन समितिको ध्यानाकर्षण गराउँदछौ ।

सुझावहरु ः

१. प्रस्तावनाले विभेद र उत्पीडनको कारक तत्वको रुपमा “पितृसत्तात्मक” राज्यव्यवस्थालाई स्वीकार गरी यो शब्द थप गर्नुपर्ने । मानिसको आत्मसम्मानलाई सम्मान  गर्दै पिडित शब्दलाई हटाई प्रभावित वा अन्य कुनै उपयुक्त शब्द राख्नुपर्ने ।

२. वंशजको नागरिकता प्राप्त गर्नका लागि कुनै व्यक्तिको जन्म हुँदाका बखत “आमा वा बाबु” नेपाली नागरिक रहेछ भने त्यस्तो व्यक्तिलाई वंशजको नागरिकता लिने व्यवस्था गर्नुपर्ने ।

३. वैवाहिक अङ्गिकृतको नागरिकताको प्रावधानमा विदेशी महिला र पुरुषलाई समान प्रावधान सुनिश्चित गरिनुपर्ने । वैवाहिक अङ्गिकृत नागरिकता प्रदान नगरेको अवधिसम्म आर्थिक र सामाजिक अधिकारको परिचयपत्र प्रदान गर्ने व्यवस्था गर्नुपर्ने ।

४. बिदेशी नागरिकसंग विवाह भएको नेपाली नागरिकको सन्तानको हकमा निज नेपालमा जन्मेको र नेपालमा बसोबास गरेको तथा  बिदेशी बाबु वा आमाको नामबाट नागरिता नलिएको अवस्थामा नेपालको वंशजको नागरिकता प्राप्त गर्नेछ भन्ने ब्यवस्था उल्लेख गनुपर्ने ।

५. नेपाली नागरिक आमाबाट नेपालमा जन्म भई नेपालमै बसोबास गरेको र बाबुको पहिचान नभएको भन्ने उल्लेख भएको जसलेउल्लेख भएकोमा सो व्यवस्थाले महिलामा स्वाभिमानमाथि चोट पुग्ने हुनाले उक्त शब्द हटाईनुपर्ने ।

मैलिक हक र कर्तव्य अन्र्तगत
महिलाको हक,
६.सुरक्षित मातृत्व तथा प्रजनन् स्वास्थ्य अधिकार र यौन स्वास्थ्य अधिकारको सुनिश्चित गर्नुपर्दछ ।
७. ल्ौङ्गिक पहिचान गरी भ्रुणहत्या गर्ने काम कानुन बमोजिम दण्डनीय हुँनेछ भन्नुको सुट्टा “लिङ्ग पहिचान गरी गरिने गर्भपतन कानुन बमोजिम दण्डनीय हुँनेछ” भन्ने राख्नु पर्ने छ ।
समानताको हक,
८. समानताको सुनिश्चितता कानुन बनाएर होइन संविधान स्वयंले गर्नुपर्छ । समान अवसरको मात्रै होइन, पहुँच र परिणामको समानता पनि सुनिश्चित गर्नु पर्दछ ।

९.महिला तथा आर्थिक रुपले विपन्न, सामाजिक वा सांस्कृतिक र भौगोलिक दृष्टिले पिछडिएका दलित, आदिवासी, आदिवासी जनजाति, खस आर्य, मधेशी, थारु, किसान, मजदूर, उत्पीडित वर्ग, मुस्लिम, पिछडा वर्ग, अल्पसंख्यक, सीमान्तीकृत, लोपोन्मुख समुदाय, युवा, बालबालिका, ज्येष्ठ नागरिक, लैङ्गिक तथा यौनिक अल्पसंख्यक, अपाङ्गता भएका व्यक्ति, अशक्त वा असहाय र पिछडिएको क्षेत्रको नागरिकको संरक्षण, सशक्तीकरण वा विकासको लागि समान अवसर, पहुँच र परिणाममा समानता सुनिश्चित  गर्नु पर्नेछ ।

राज्यको निर्देशक सिद्धान्त, नीति तथा दायित्व,
१०. महिलाले घरमा गरेको कामको मूल्यांकन गर्दै त्यस्तो कार्यको आर्थिक मूल्य राष्ट्रिय आयमा गणना गर्ने भन्ने जस्ता भाषा राखिनुपर्ने ।

११. घरायसी कामकाजमा महिला र पुरुषको समान साझेदारीको विकास गर्नुपर्ने ।

संघिय व्यवस्थापिका,
महिला सहभागिता
१२. प्रतिनिधि सभा र राष्ट्रिय सभामा छुट्टै ३३ प्रतिशत महिलाको सहभागिताको सुनिश्चितता गर्नुपर्ने ।
प्रादेशिक व्यवस्थापिका,
१३. प्रादेशिक व्यवस्थापिका पनि चालीस प्रतिशत सदस्यहरुको प्रतिनिधित्व महिलाहरुको हुनु पर्नेछ भन्ने व्यवस्था लेखिनु पर्ने ।
स्थानिय व्यवस्थापिका,
१४.गाउँसभा र नगरसभामा महिलाको सहभागिता ५० प्रतिशत सुनिश्चितता गर्नुपर्नेछ । प्रमुख÷उपप्रमुखमा एकजना महिला हुनुपर्ने ।
संघीय, प्रादेशिक तथा स्थानिय कार्यपालिका,
१५.संघीय, प्रादेशिक तथा स्थानयि सरकारमा न्यूनतम ३३ प्रतिशत महिलाको सहभागिताको सुनिश्चितता गर्नुपर्ने । प्रमुख÷उपप्रमुखमा एकजना महिला हुनुपर्ने ।

सवैधानिक आयोग,
१६. सबै संवैधानिक आयोगहरु लगायत राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षा आयोगमा महिलाको समानुपातिक समावेशी सहभागिताको सुनिश्चितता हुनुपर्ने ।
१७. महिला आयोग, मानवअधिकार आयोगकको लगायतका सैबैधानिक आयोगका सदस्य हुनको लागि  न्युनतम उमेर ४० बर्ष राखिएकोमा उमेर हदबन्दि हटाउनु पर्ने ।

१८. न्यायपालिकामा सबै तहका अदालत र न्याय परिषद्मा कम्तिमा ३३ प्रतिशत  महिलाको सहभागिताको  व्यबस्था गर्नुपर्ने ।
निर्णायक तहमा महिला सहभागिता,
१९. राष्ट्रपति र उपराष्ट्रपति तथा प्रधानमन्त्री र उपप्रधानमन्त्रीमा एक महिला हुनुपर्ने  सुनिश्चितता गरी निर्णायक तहमा महिलाको सहभागिताको व्यवस्थापन गर्नुपर्ने र पुरुष र महिलालाई आलोपालो गरी प्रमुख पदमा सहभागि गराउने व्यवस्था गर्नुपर्ने ।
राजनैतिक दलको गठन, दर्ता र संचालन,
२०. राजनीतिक दलमा समानुपातिक समावेशी सुनिश्चितता गरिनु पर्ने, दलमा ३३ प्रतिशत महिलाको सहभागिता नभएमा निर्वाचन आयोगले दर्ता खारेज गरिदिने व्यवस्था गर्नुपर्ने ।

नोट ः

    संबिधान लैिङ्गक मैत्रि तथा संबिधानको भाषा लैिङ्गक तटस्थ हुनुपर्ने ।
    संबिधानको मस्यौदालाई पुर्णता दिने र अबको हरेक निर्णय प्रकृयामा संबिधान सभाले महिला सहभागिता सुनिश्चित गर्ने ।
    महिलाको कुरा गर्दा महिला भित्रको विविधतालाई ध्यानमा राख्दै सबै महिलाको समावेशिकताको सुनिश्चितता गनुपर्ने ।
    कुनै पनि निकायको प्रमुख उपप्रमुखमा एक ज्ना महिला हुनुपर्ने र प्रमुख  उपप्रमुख आलो पालो गरी हुनुपर्ने ।

संस्थाहरुको तर्फबाट
१. महिला विकास तथा कानुन मञ्च
२. लुम नेपाल
४. ओरेक नेपाल
 ५. महिलाको निम्ति महिला मञ्च   
 ६. संचारिका समुह
७. छोरी
 ८. हाम्रा बैनिहरु
 ९. Third alliance for human right
 १०.महिला मानवअधिकार रक्षक जिल्ला संजाल काठमाण्डौ

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Our Programmes

1. Weaves and Bridges

a) Young Women Meet

It is a year-long connectivity program starting with a week-long workshop. It focuses on building knowledge based activism in forging multi-generational cooperation for ownership in feminist movement. It is provided to the young women of aged 18-25 years old. The major objectives of the program is to build the capacity of Young Women, Identify discrimination and violence by young women, increase the number of activists integrating in Nepalese women's movement and empower them to take their own decisions for their body. Total of 18 girls had participated on November 2014.

b) Multi Generational Dialogues

It is a one-day monthly discussion program. Discussions are done in different issues. It caters to women of all generations. The major objective of the program is to exchange experiences and stories to people, strengthen the women’s movement, acknowledging the older generation and welcoming the younger generation in the women’s movement. This program is not just limited to Kathmandu valley but have been to many other places like, Banglung, Udayapur, Etc.


c) Interlinking and interconnecting generations of feminists ( Organisational Development)

2. Mobilising with Alliances towards Actions

  • DOVA research and implementation
  • Campaign Against Rape
  •  Research on   Women's Political Participation in the Peace Process
  • 1 billion rising

3. Sexuality and Representation of Women in Media ( Cinema as a focus)

A policy lobby focused approach that cannot ignore the way  women, their body and sexuality is misrepresented. Conducts study,  seminars and reaches out through events.

4. Women's Resource Center ( Her Space)

A physical space in Kathmandu designed so individuals can find their own working table and resources whenever needed. Conducts regular events involving generational debates, screenings, and events that groom networking between individuals.

Advisors & Board Members

Advisors (Since 2011)

Dr. Trilochan Upreti   Lawyer, Ex Secretary of the Office of the Prime Minister, Nepal
Ms. Rita Thapa   Women’s Rights, Fund Raising  
Mr. Jitendra B. Rajbhandary  Chartered Accountant and finance consultant
Dr. Binayak Rajbhandari  Professor, Agriculture and Sustainable Livelihood
Mr. Shaun Kirven   International Human Rights Law
Ms. Nalini Singh    International Women’s Rights Activist

Board Members

Ms. Jyotsna Maskay Chairperson
Ms. Jiwanti Poudel Vice-Chairperson
Ms. Bishnu Neupane  Secretary
Ms. Sarita Dahal  Treasurer
Ms. Sarita Bhusal  Member
Ms. Renu Shrestha  Member
Ms. Shobha BK  Member

Young Women Advisory Committee

Bimala BK (Women (Dalit) rights campaigner)
Sarita KC (Political and Women's Rights Activisit)
Pema Lakhi (Queer Feminist)
Kalpana Bhandari (media enthuse)
Neeti Aryal (a link between academia and activist)

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People behind LOOM

Staff Members

Jyotsna Maskey, Executive chair
Kiran Maharjan, Finance Officer
Sarita Bhusal, Program Coordinator
Gita Thapa, Program officer
Sambida Rajbhandari, Communication and Documentation Officer
Jamuna Bajagain, Field Officer
Juna Lama, Office Assistant


Gyanu Gurung
Pushpa Joshi

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Strategy Paper 2011-2015


LOOM (2011- 2015)

(Connecting and Engaging Women and Girls for an autonomous women’s movement)


LOOM aims to encourage the process of building skills and knowledge of youth and women to address social, economic, and legal components of discrimination and disorder among species.


Establish LOOM as an indentified figure in the mass of campaigns that represent women and youth’s rights including an open space to learn, share and grow with changes in Nepal

Strengthen capacities of emerging women’s organizations to address diverse components of discrimination. 

Identify approaches of participation, collectivism, multi thematic understanding as tools to address complexities of discrimination.


LOOM intends to use the following approaches to meet

1. Participation

 LOOM believes that participation must not be limited to only numbers, and to certain age, gender class and caste. Women must be included at the inception stage of decision making processes on plans and policies designed for them. Using women to validate final decisions and actions without their participation in prior decision making process is a step towards inequality and anti democratization policies.

2. Identification of local issues and strategies

LOOM believes in identifying local issues and strategies to address concerns of discrimination and disorder among species. This leads to ownership of processes, and visibility of different forms of approach crucial to address women’s rights.  

3. Multi Thematic Understanding

LOOM believes in using a multi thematic understanding towards an existing situation. It is a tool aimed to address an issue from larger perspective rather than recognizing a single element as the cause of discrimination. 


1. Documentation

LOOM aims to use documentation as a crucial tool to revise, recognize, and retell women’s stories of independence, change makers, contribution, and challenges. Young women will be an integral part of it. The data willl include records of human rights violation, testimonies, oral histories, and local campaigns. LOOM believes in preserving history of women’s struggle, movement and success for future generations so the history is not forgotten, and the legacy continues.

2. Using Media

The world of new media technologies, people have started designing creative, innovative ways to surface voices of different forms, design actions, and bring the changes as foreseen. LOOM takes this premise to use new forms of media through mobile phones, internet to interlink and interconnect women through portals beyond boundaries. This non traditional method of working will be in aligning with traditional form of approaches. Women will use this innovative space to express their views and thoughts, link with common kind women to lobby and advocate on similar issues, design their own urgent petition to seek participation and support; and outreach to global audiences. LOOM also accepts and recognizes the essence of digital security, and will include them within the programme.

3. Mobilising and Engaging with Youth and Women

LOOM believes that social transformation cannot happen without the participation and engagement of youth and women. More so, the concerned issue and process must be owned and directed by the rights holders. Youth and women need to access to build their access to skills and knowledge to claim for their entitlements, and engagement in process of social and political transformation, and their wellbeing. 

4. Feminist research and campaigns

LOOM believes in using feminist research as a basis to explore historical, socio economic and cultural extent of the concerns of discrimination against women through power analysis. A multi thematic understanding will provide practical, deeper analysis on multiple causes, and the specific recommendations will be developed into smaller campaigns. The research will be followed by a cultural outreach to provide continuum to the initiative.

5. Working developmental Issues

In the current context, and relevance of the problem, LOOM will focus on contentious issues of Rights of Youth and Women through Violence Against Women and Youth, Reproductive and Sexual Health, and Right to Food as a cross cutting element. The issues will use the intersectional approach for analysis and key results.

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